5G Is Coming Soon. Do You Care? You Should. Here’s Why. Upgrading U.S. wireless networks has been called our most important infrastructure project. It’s actually happening.

May 19, 2018 by

2
CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY \ 3
01
INTRODUCTION \ 4
01.1
BACKGROUND \ 4
01.2
KEY FINDINGS \ 5
02
WHAT IS THE CLOUD? \ 6
02.1
CLOUD INFRASTURE \ 6
02.2
THE DATA CENTRE \ 8
02.3
THE GROWTH OF CLOUD
COMPUTING \ 9
02.4
INDUSTRY FORECASTS \ 10
03
WIRELESS ACCESS TO
THE CLOUD \ 11
03.1
LOCAL WIRELESS ACCESS
TECHNOLOGIES \ 11
03.2
MOBILE WIRELESS ACCESS
TECHNOLOGIES \ 11
04
DETERMINING THE ENERGY
CONSUMPTION OF WIRELESS
CLOUD SERVICES \ 12
04.1
THE CEET WIRELESS CLOUD
ENERGY CONSUMPTION
MODEL \ 12
05
THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION
OF THE WIRELESS CLOUD IN
2015 \ 14
06
CONCLUSION \ 15
APPENDIX: CEET WIRELESS CLOUD ENERGY
CONSUMPTION MODEL \ 16
A1
POWER CONSUMPTION OF CLOUD SERVICES \ 16
A2
USER TRAFFIC PROFILES \ 17
A3
USERS’ DEVICES \ 18
A4
BROADBAND ACCESS TECHNOLOGY \ 18
A5
NUMBER OF USERS \ 18
A6
ACCESS TECHNOLOGY \ 18
A7
METRO AND CORE NETWORKS \ 19
REFERENCES \ 20
PREFACE
The purpose of CEET white papers is to highlight technical
and policy issues that are important to the context of
energy effi
ciency in telecommunications and related
ICT technologies.
Early cloud services focused on replacing in-house
enterprise networks based on wired (LAN) technologies.
It is well understood in the industry that this concept can
result in signifi
cant improvements in energy effi
ciency. This
white paper,
The Power of Wireless Cloud
, addresses the
question of energy consumption associated with wireless
devices, such as laptops, tablets and smartphones, when
accessing cloud services. The use of wireless access
technologies will increase as cloud services expand from
the enterprise market to also providing consumer services.
The writing of this document was motivated by the
explosive growth we are now seeing in wireless access
to cloud services, and a need to understand the energy
implications of using wireless to access cloud services as
these services expand into the consumer market. Until
the publication of this white paper, discussion of energy
consumption by cloud services almost exclusively focused
on corporate (enterprise) cloud services accessed via wired
connections. With the evolution toward wireless access
and the growth in consumer cloud services, in this white
paper CEET extends this debate to include this broader
cloud ecosystem.
The paper shows that wireless access via 4G LTE mobile
networks and local home WiFi consumes more energy
per bit of data transferred than public WiFi networks.
Importantly, the paper also shows that when considering
end-to-end wireless cloud services, a larger fraction of the
energy is spent in the wireless access than the data centre.
We hope that this white paper will help to stimulate debate
on the energy implications of wireless cloud access and
how the energy consumption in wireless networks can
be improved. We feel that the issues highlighted here
demonstrate the importance of research being undertaken
in organisations like GreenTouch and TREND to improve
the energy effi
ciency of wireless networks.
Rod Tucker
Director, CEET
Laureate Professor, University of Melbourne
CEET WHITE PAPER: THE POWER OF WIRELESS CLOUD
3
2012
2015
UP TO
460%
GROWTH
Data centres are only part of a much larger cloud-computing
ecosystem. In fact, as this white paper puts forward,
the network itself, and specifi
cally the fi
nal link between
telecommunications infrastructure and user device is by far
the dominant and most concerning drain on energy in the
entire cloud system.
Based on current trends, wireless access technologies such
as WiFi (utilising fi
bre and copper wireline infrastructure)
and 4G LTE (cellular technology) will soon be the dominant
methods for accessing cloud services. ‘Wireless cloud’ is a
surging sector with implications that cannot be ignored.
Our energy calculations show that by 2015, wireless cloud
will consume up to 43 TWh, compared to only 9.2 TWh in
2012, an increase of 460%. This is an increase in carbon
footprint from 6 megatonnes of CO2 in 2012 to up to 30
megatonnes of CO2 in 2015, the equivalent of adding 4.9
million cars to the roads. Up to 90% of this consumption is
attributable to wireless access network technologies, data
centres account for only 9%.
Curbing the user convenience provided by wireless access
seems unlikely and therefor the ICT sector faces a major
challenge. Finding solutions to the ‘dirty cloud’ at the very
least requires a broader acknowledgment of the cloud
computing ecosystem and each components’ energy
requirements. There needs to be a focus on making access
technologies more effi
cient and potentially a reworking of
how the industry manages data and designs the entire
global network.
This white paper sets out to establish a starting point for
addressing these issues, presenting a detailed model
that estimates the energy consumption of wireless cloud
services in 2015 taking into account all of the components
required to deliver those services.
BY 2015 WIRELESS CLOUD WILL
GENERATE UP TO
30 MEGATONNES OF CO2
COMPARED TO
6 MEGATONNES IN 2012
4.9 MILLION
NEW CARS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Previous analysis and industry focus has missed the
point: access networks, not data centres, are the biggest
threat to the sustainability of cloud services. This is
because more people are accessing cloud services
via wireless networks. These networks are inherently
energy ineffi
cient and a disproportionate contributor to
cloud energy consumption.
Cloud computing has rapidly emerged as the driving
trend in global Internet services. It is being promoted as
a green technology that can signifi
cantly reduce energy
consumption by centralising the computing power of
organisations that manage large IT systems and devices.
The substantial energy savings available to organisations
moving their ICT services into the cloud has been the
subject of several recent white papers.
Another trend that continues unabated is the take-up
and use of personal wireless communications devices.
These include mobile phones, wireless-enabled
laptops, smartphones and tablets. In fact, tablets don’t
accommodate a traditional cable connection; rather it is
assumed a local or mobile wireless connection will be used
to support all data transferred to and from the device.
There is a signifi
cant emerging convergence between
cloud computing and wireless communication, providing
consumers with access to a vast array of cloud applications
and services with the convenience of anywhere, anytime,
any network functionality from the device of their choice.
These are services many of us use every day like Google
Apps, Offi
ce 365, Amazon Web Services (AWS), Facebook,
Zoho cloud offi
ce suite, and many more.
To date, discussion about the energy effi
ciency of cloud
services has focussed on data centres, the facilities used to
store and serve the massive amounts of data underpinning
these services. The substantial energy consumption of data
centres is undeniable and has been the subject of recent
high-profi
le reports including the Greenpeace report,
How
Clean is Your Cloud
.
However, f
ocussing cloud effi
ciency debate on data centres
alone obscures a more signifi
cant and complex problem
and avoids the critical issue of ineffi
ciency in the wireless
access network.
=
WIRELESS CLOUD ENERGY
4
01 INTRODUCTION
01.1 BACKGROUND
Over the past decade, advances in information and
communication technologies (ICT) have transformed
how society interacts with and uses technology.
Developments in computing technologies have driven
continued miniaturisation and reduced costs supporting the
development of more affordable and powerful devices such
as notebooks, smartphones and tablets. As a result, most
people in the developed world now carry computing and
communication devices with them wherever they go [1].
The Internet, underpinned by global telecommunications
infrastructure, has fostered innovation and provided
access to services that have changed the way humans
communicate and gather information. Examples include
web browsing, information retrieval, online retail services,
social networking and video on-demand. These services,
accompanied by many other emerging and existing
applications, are driving continued demand for broadband
connectivity and capacity. This, in turn, is fuelling a
continuous expansion of telecommunications networks [2].
Advances in personal computing and the widespread
availability of high-speed fi
xed-line and wireless broadband
access have helped create an environment where
anywhere, anytime access to data and services is a
way of life. These services are increasing supported by
data storage and processing infrastructure located in
large centralised facilities spread around the globe. This
infrastructure is commonly referred to as
the cloud
, and the
practice of remotely storing, accessing and processing data
across this infrastructure is known as
cloud computing
[3].
Cloud computing relies upon concentrated computational
resources, typically housed in data centres, that are
accessed via the public Internet or a private network.
One key advantage of cloud computing is that it enables
resources and infrastructure to be shared between
many users, and returned to a resource pool when not
needed. This offers economies of scale in data provision,
computation and storage, while allowing users to gain easy
access to computing resources far more powerful than
that provided by a single desktop computer. Data centres
are undeniably signifi
cant consumers of energy, but can
be optimised for effi
ciency and as a result, cloud services
are often promoted as sustainable alternatives to desktop
processing [4].
Cloud computing has faced criticism for the substantial
scale of carbon footprint. Greenpeace raised the issue of
‘dirty’ electricity generation to power cloud service data
centres [5]. H
owever, scr
utiny of ‘dirty cloud’ to date has
generally missed an opportunity, being largely focused
on the energy effi
ciency of data centres in isolation. Data
centres are generally highly optimised for energy effi
ciency
[6] and, importantly are only a single component in the
cloud-computing ecosystem. This ecosystem includes the
metro and core network, and access network components
incorporating both fi
xed-line and wireless technologies. All
of these elements require power and, as this white paper
demonstrates, as a whole consume more energy than data
centre facilities.
This white paper builds on previous research undertaken
by CEET examining the power consumption of cloud
computing. The 2011 CEET publication
Green Cloud
Computing: Balancing Energy in Processing, Storage and
Transport
[7] showed that when high volume of traffi
c
is exchanged between a service provider and user, the
majority of energy consumed is related to the transport
of information. This was an important demonstration that
analysis of cloud energy consumption must consider
multiple elements.
Given growth in the consumption of cloud services via
portable devices, this white paper focuses on the energy
consumption of the components required to support
wireless access to cloud services, or ‘wireless cloud’ for the
purpose of this report. In this report we defi
ne wireless into
two categories: local and mobile. Local is defi
ned as home
or shared/public WiFi and mobile is defi
ned as 4G LTE.
Wireless, local and mobile, is fast becoming the standard
access mode for cloud services. Global mobile data traffi
c
overall is currently increasing at 78% per annum and mobile
cloud traffi
c specifi
cally is increasing at 95% per annum
[1]. Take-up of smartphones and tablets is increasing the
move toward wireless access to cloud services [1], while
major cloud industry players strongly advocate the use
of cloud services via wireless technologies. Should the
projected industry trends become reality, wireless devices
ENERGY CONSUMPTION
WIRELESS
NETWORKS
DATA CENTRES = 9%
90%
WIRELESS NETWORKS ARE
THE BIGGEST THREAT TO THE
SUSTAINABILITY OF CLOUD
SERVICES, NOT DATA CENTRES
=
CEET WHITE PAPER: THE POWER OF WIRELESS CLOUD
5
will become the dominant technology for accessing Internet
services around 2016 [1].
By focusing debate and analysis on data centres, industry
risks obscuring the true energy cost of cloud services and
impairing any effort to make them more sustainable. Any
attempt to make cloud computing more sustainable must
target the most ineffi
cient parts of the system.
The results in this white paper show that the current focus
on data centres is misplaced and that wireless access
networks are clearly the biggest and most ineffi
cient
consumer of energy in the cloud environment.
This white paper presents a detailed model that
estimates the energy consumption of cloud services
delivered via wireless access networks in 2015 taking
into account the broad range of components required to
support those services, including data centres and the
telecommunications networks. The model is based on the
expected up-take of wireless cloud services and forecasts
of the telecommunications technologies that will underpin
wireless cloud services in 2015. This estimate uses an
incremental energy calculation
that is based on a scenario
where wireless cloud traffi
c is part of many other traffi
c
fl
ows through the network and data centres. Wireless cloud
traffi
c is carried through a network that is already carrying
a large amount of traffi
c, with wireless cloud traffi
c being
about 20% of mobile traffi
c and approximately 35% of data
centre traffi
c [2,4].
01.2 KEY FINDINGS
1.
There is an emerging convergence and trend
towards cloud services being accessed via wireless
communication networks such as WiFi and 4G LTE.
2.
The total energy consumption of cloud services
accessed via wireless networks could reach between
32 TWh and 43 TWh by 2015. In 2012, the fi
gure was
closer to 9.2 TWh.
3.
Wireless access network technologies account for
90% of total wireless cloud energy consumption.
Data centres account for only about 9%. The energy
consumption of wireless user devices is negligible.
4.
Previous analysis and current debate on making cloud
services more energy effi
cient is misplaced on data
centres and ignores the massive impact of wireless
cloud growth.
5.
Industry must focus efforts on making cloud services
more energy-effi
cient, including developing more
energy-effi
cient wireless access network technologies.
6
02 WHAT IS THE CLOUD?
There have been many descriptions or defi
nitions of what
constitutes cloud computing, but the most commonly
quoted one is from the US Department of Commerce
National Institute of Standards and Technology, which has
defi
ned cloud computing as follows:
Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous,
convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of
confi
gurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers,
storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly
provisioned and released with minimal management effort
or service provider interaction [8].
Cloud computing is underpinned by a number of
technologies, including:
1.
The data centre(s) where the user’s data is stored
and/or processed.
2.
The core and metro telecommunications networks
that connect the user’s access network to the data
centre(s), which may be located locally or globally.
3.
The broadband access technology including fi
xed
broadband, mobile and local wireless solutions,
detailed in Section 3.
4.
The end user’s device, for example a PC, laptop,
smartphone or tablet.
Cloud services may be used by: consumers for personal
computing, gaming, and social networking activities,
by businesses in lieu of a traditional desktop computing
environment, or to provide additional scalable computation
or web-server resources to a wide range of organisations.
02.1 CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE
Cloud infrastructure can be broadly categorised into:
Public cloud infrastructure
Public cloud infrastrutre is available for open use by
the public. The data centre infrastructure that hosts the
cloud services may be owned, managed and operated
by businesses, academic institutions, or government
organisations. This infrastructure is typically located in a data
centre under the control of the cloud provider [8]. Public
cloud services are accessed via the public Internet via the
customers Internet Service Provider (Figure 1).
Private cloud infrastructure
Private cloud infrastructure is generally intended for
exclusive use by a single organisation. It may be owned,
managed, and operated by the organisation, a third party, or
a combination, and it may be located on the user’s premises
or hosted by a third party [8]. Private cloud services use
privately owned enterprise networks that connect users to
the data centre via a corporate network (Figure 2). This can
provide a higher quality of service, but generally at a greater
cost than that of the public Internet/public cloud.
Cloud infrastructure is able to offer a diverse range of
services to customers. These are often categorised into one
or a combination of three generic service types [8]:
1.
Software as a Services (SaaS)
: Users are able to
use the cloud provider’s applications, such as a word
processor, email, calendar, database manager, etc.,
running on cloud infrastructure. The applications can be
accessed from simple user devices such as a laptop,
PC, tablet or mobile phone. Google Apps, Dropbox and
Salesforce.com are examples of SaaS.
2.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
: The user has the
ability to provision processing, storage, networks, and
other computing resources where the user is able to
deploy and run software. Examples of an IaaS include
Rackspace, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and
Simple Storage Service (S3).
3.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
: The capability provided
to users to create and deploy applications using
programming languages, libraries, services, and
tools provided in the cloud. Google’s App Engine and
Microsoft Azure Compute are examples of PaaS,
which provide software developers facilities to draft,
test and deploy their products without having to own
computing infrastructure.
In the three service types customers do not manage or
control the underlying cloud infrastructure. H
owever, PaaS
enables the customer to have control over the deployed
applications and possibly confi
guration settings for the
application-hosting environment.
CEET WHITE PAPER: THE POWER OF WIRELESS CLOUD
7
ACCESS
NETWORKS
PUBLIC
INTERNET
INTERNET
SERVICE
PROVIDER
INTERNET
SERVICE
PROVIDER
INTERNET
SERVICE
PROVIDER
USERS
DATA CENTRE
DATA CENTRE
DATA CENTRE
CORPORATE
LAN
CORPORATE
(PRIVATE)
NETWORK
DATA CENTRE
USERS
DATA CENTRE
DATA CENTRE
Figure 1 Schematic representation of public cloud infrastructure. The users are connected to the data centres that provide the
cloud services via the
pubic Internet.
Figure 2 Schematic representation of private cloud infrastructure. The users are connected to the data centres that provide the
cloud services via a private
network.
Figure 1 Public cloud infrastructure
Figure 2 Private cloud infrastructure
8
02.2 THE DATA CENTRE
The data centre is essential to cloud computing providing
the processing and storage capacity to deliver services to
customers. The typical data centre is a large facility housing
many tens or hundreds of thousands of services. These
facilities often consume tens of megawatts of electrical
power to operate and cool the equipment. Despite the large
power consumption, the ability of a data centre to centralise
and pool-computing resources enables improved energy
effi
ciency compared with traditional computing services.
The centralised computers are shared among a number
of customers who see their share as a computer in its
own right. In turn, this reduces the amount of equipment
required to deliver computer services.
Modern data centres are highly optimised for energy
effi
ciency [6]. Many reports promote cloud services as
technologies to make enterprise ICT more energy effi
cient
by reducing equipment purchases and the operational
energy consumed in-house [9,10,11]. By using centralised
computing services from a cloud service provider,
enterprises can provide employees with a simpler low
power device that connects to the cloud.
According to the Carbon Disclosure Project in 2011, the
adoption of cloud computing will allow “US businesses
with annual revenues of more than $1 billion can cut CO2
emissions by 85.7 million metric tons annually by 2020.” [9]
Consultants Accenture and WSP Environment and
Energy stated:
”for large deployments, Microsoft’s cloud solutions can
reduce energy use and carbon emissions by more than 30
percent when compared to their corresponding Microsoft
business applications installed on-premises. The benefi
ts
are even more impressive for small deployments: Energy
use and emissions can be reduced by more than 90 percent
with a shared cloud service.” [10]
While a report by WSP Environment and Energy
consultants for SalesForce.com concluded that:
“Salesforce.com’s estimated total customer carbon
emissions footprint for 2010 is at least 19 times smaller
than an equivalent on-premises deployment, and is 3 times
smaller than an equivalent private cloud deployment.” [11]
The improved energy effi
ciency of cloud computing has
been described or evaluated in many reports [12,13,14,15].
A similar approach is found in these reports and is
reasonably intuitive: by maximising their utilisation and
minimising the power consumption of cloud data centres,
the energy per user can be reduced to levels much lower
than that for a dedicated desktop PC. Therefore, cloud
services appear to be intrinsically more energy effi
cient
than traditional desktop computing.
Despite the fact that data centre servers are more energy
effi
cient than desktop PCs, the reality is that data centres
consume a considerable amount of energy. Between 2005
and 2010 the energy consumption of data centres grew by
56% [16]. In 2010 data centres contributed to approximately
1.5% of global electricity use [16] .
Greenpeace recently published a series of reports
questioning the environmental impact of data centres. A
2010 report,
How dirty is your data
, focused on the carbon
footprint of data centres owned by several major cloud
service providers, including: Apple, Microsoft, Google,
Facebook, and Amazon among others [17]. A second
report
Make IT Green
examined the carbon footprint
estimates for data centres presented in the SMART 2020
report published by GeSI and The Climate Group [18,19].
Additionally, Greenpeace have noted that the location of a
data centre and the use of coal-generated electricity can
have a signifi
cant impact on a data centre’s carbon footprint.
A follow up report,
How Clean is Your Cloud
was published
by Greenpeace in April 2012 [5]. This report analysed
the power consumption of data centres operated by
all major cloud service providers, while also looking at
the percentage of that power sourced from renewable
electricity. Greenpeace rated the providers on their
approach to minimising the carbon footprint of data centres.
Several of the cloud service providers took exception to
the Greenpeace report [20]. As data centres are becoming
a major consumer of electrical power, researchers and the
industry worldwide are working towards improving data
centre energy effi
ciency and seeking low carbon power
supplies [21,22].The reduction of the power consumption of
data centers is not only an environmental priority, but also
driven by a reduction of the operational costs associated
with power consumption. This includes the direct electricity
bill, as well as secondary cost as power back-up and
cooling. Another approach is locating the data centres in
cooler climates to reduce the cost of removing heat from
the facility [23].
Public debate continues to focus on the energy
consumption of data centres and the savings available
to industry. H
owever,
there is a broader issue of energy
consumption in the cloud computing environment not
restricted to data centres. Accessing cloud services via
wireless networks is also an issue.
PUBLIC DEBATE
NEEDS TO MOVE FROM THE ENERGY
CONSUMPTION OF DATA CENTRES TO
THE EFFICIENCY OF WIRELESS ACCESS
NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES
CEET WHITE PAPER: THE POWER OF WIRELESS CLOUD
9
02.3 THE GROWTH OF CLOUD
COMPUTING
The effi
ciency of data centres and the ability for
organisations to reduce their ICT infrastructure costs
and resulting emissions has lead to an uptake of cloud
computing by many organisations. Cloud computing offers
many advantages over conventional computing. The key
to cloud computing is that resources and infrastructure are
pooled and allocated to customers as they are required
and returned at the end of the session. This leads to the
effi
cient utilisation and delivered economies of scale in
the provision of computation and storage. H
owever, the
most advantageous aspect of cloud computing is the
convenience of access anywhere, anytime enabled from
devices via wireless broadband networks. The result has
seen massive growth in the wireless cloud.
Major industry participants, such as Apple, Microsoft and
Google, vigorously promote wireless cloud services. The
common theme in accessing their cloud services is via a
wireless connection. A number of devices including tablets,
smartphone and laptops no longer need to connect to
telecommunication networks via a cable, using instead a
WiFi or cellular connections [24].
A summary of the offerings is provided below.
APPLE ON iCLOUD
“..FREE NEW CLOUD SERVICES THAT WORK
SEAMLESSLY WITH APPLICATIONS ON YOUR
iPHONE®, iPAD®, iPOD TOUCH®, MAC® OR PC TO
AUTOMATICALLY AND WIRELESSLY STORE YOUR
CONTENT IN ICLOUD AND AUTOMATICALLY AND
WIRELESSLY PUSH IT TO ALL YOUR DEVICES. WHEN
ANYTHING CHANGES ON ONE OF YOUR DEVICES,
ALL OF YOUR DEVICES ARE WIRELESSLY UPDATED
ALMOST INSTANTLY.” [25]
MICROSOFT ON SKYDRIVE
“STORE ANYTHING ON YOUR SKYDRIVE AND IT’S
AUTOMATICALLY AVAILABLE FROM YOUR TRUSTED
DEVICES—NO SYNCING OR CABLES NEEDED.” [26]
GOOGLE ON GOOGLE DRIVE
“GOOGLE DRIVE IS EVERYWHERE YOU ARE – ON THE
WEB, IN YOUR HOME, AT THE OFFICE AND ON THE
GO. SO WHEREVER YOU ARE, YOUR STUFF IS JUST…
THERE. READY TO GO, READY TO SHARE.” [27]
10
02.4 INDUSTRY FORECASTS
ICT industry commentators predict substantial growth in
cloud services and wireless cloud services over the coming
years [28,29]. Moreover it is expected that wireless devices
will gradually replace PCs as the preferred device for
accessing web and cloud services [30,31,32]. Examples
of industry forecasts for the growth in wireless cloud
services include:
ABI Research
: the number of wireless cloud users
worldwide will grow rapidly to just over 998 million in
2014, up from 42.8 million in 2008, an annual growth
rate of 69% [33].
Forrester
: the global market for cloud computing will
grow from $40.7 billion in 2011 to more than $241
billion in 2020 and the total size of the public cloud
market will grow from $25.5 billion in 2011 to $159.3
billion in 2020 [34].
Cisco
: global cloud IP traffi
c (fi
xed and mobile) is
increasing 66% per annum and will reach 133 exabytes
per month in 2015 [3].
Cisco
: global mobile data traffi
c (including both cloud
and non-cloud traffi
c) grew by 113% in 2011 and
is forecasted to grow at 78% per annum. In 2016
data traffi
c will reach 10.8 exabytes per month, with
wireless cloud services (cellular and WiFi) accounting
for 71% (7.6 exabytes per month) of this traffi
c [1].
Juniper
: the cloud-based mobile applications market is
expected to grow by 88% per annum between 2009
and 2014 [35].
It is important to note that of the 133 exabytes per month
of IP cloud traffi
c forecast by Cisco, only 17% is between
customers and cloud data centres. The rest of this traffi
c
is within or between data centres [3]. This means that, in
2015, there will be approximately 23 exabytes per month
cloud IP traffi
c between users and data centres.
Using the Cisco data [1], at an annual growth rate of 95%,
7.6 exabytes of wireless cloud traffi
c between customers
and data centres in 2016 correspond to 4 exabytes per
month in 2015. Therefore mobile cloud traffi
c will constitute
approximately 17% of all customer IP cloud traffi
c between
customers and data centres in 2015.
THE NUMBER OF WIRELESS
CLOUD USERS WORLDWIDE WILL
GROW TO JUST OVER 998 MILLION
IN 2014, UP FROM 42.8 MILLION
IN 2008, AN ANNUAL GROWTH
RATE OF 69% [33]

Related Posts

Share This

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *